International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)
Topic 1: Military Case- Rwandan Army
From 1990-1994, eleven senior officers in the Rwandan Army composed and executed a plan to eliminate the Tutsi population as well as certain Hutu moderates. The plan involved training soldiers in the extremist Hutu ideology, preparing lists of those to be murdered, and participating in massacres of entire Tutsi villages. The Tribunal has identified two particular military commanders, Kabiligi and Ntabakuze, who will stand trial for committing genocide, crimes against humanity, and violating the Geneva Convention.
Topic 2: Government Case- Hutu Government of Rwanda
Following the assassinations of many national government officials, a new Rwandan government was formed in April 1994, comprised almost entirely of Hutus from the Hutu-dominated National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND) party. Members of this government actively supported the military plan to purge Rwanda of the Tutsi population through directives to local prefects. The Tribunal has charged four government ministers with complicity in committing genocide, crimes against humanity, and violating the Geneva Convention.
Topic 3: Media Case
In 1994, the press in Rwanda consisted of two radio stations and several written press publications, supplied by the Rwandan Information Bureau. Hassan Ngeze, editor in chief of the newspaper Kangura, used media to promote the extremist Hutu movement by broadcasting messages of ethnic hatred and incitement to violence against the Tutsi population, along with publishing identities of those on lists to be eliminated. The Tribunal has charged Ngeze with direct and public incitement to commit genocide as well as crimes against humanity.